Chaos A.D. (Chaos Anno Domini) is the fifth studio album by Brazilian heavy metal band Sepultura, released in late 1993 through Roadrunner Records. This was the record that helped the group transcend their previous thrash metal style,Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 131. deepening their forays into hardcore punk, industrial music and Brazilian-styled percussion. It would become one of the founding pillars of the groove metal subgenre. It won silver and gold certifications throughout Europe and the USA.
The band considered a number of producers, including avant-garde jazz composer John Zorn and Al Jourgensen of industrial metal pioneers Ministry. They settled with Andy Wallace, who had previously mixed Arise. Sepultura wanted isolation, and for that Andy Wallace suggested Rockfield Studios, located in South Wales.Lemos 1993, page 42.
"Kaiowas" was recorded live among the ruins of the medieval castle of Chepstow. It was an entirely acoustic track, with Andreas Kisser and Max Cavalera on the guitars and brother-drummer Igor Cavalera and bassist Paulo Jr. handling the percussion duties. When they recorded "Kaiowas", the quartet never even considered playing the track live, because they thought it would be too difficult to recreate the drumming on stage. They changed their minds after seeing a video of the American band Neurosis: "We saw in that live video that the Neurosis guys put down their guitars and everybody started to play the drums on stage", lead guitarist Andreas remembers. "We decided to try the same thing. We rehearsed it once and it was wonderful. We haven't stopped playing the song live since."
During Chaos A.D.s sessions, Sepultura recorded a number of covers: "The Hunt", from New Model Army, "Policia", from Titãs, "Inhuman Nature", from the American hardcore punk band Final Conflict, and "Crucificados pelo Sistema", from Brazilians Ratos de Porão. Igor was a New Model Army fan and he convinced the other band members to include "The Hunt" on the record. Paulo joked that the money of the LP would go straight to new dentures for Justin Sullivan, the toothless singer of New Model Army.
Out of the boredom of playing the Arise songs for two years straight and the threat of musically stagnating, Sepultura pushed the envelope on Chaos A.D.Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 123. The first track, "Refuse/Resist", revealed the band's new musical direction: slower, with more emphasis on groove than speed.Lemos 1993, page 43. The song starts with the heartbeat of Max's then-unborn first son, Zyon, followed by some Afro-Brazilian drumming reminiscent of Salvador, Bahia samba-reggae group Olodum. About the track's introductory guitar riff, Max acknowledged that it "could have been created by a death metal band." Archived at
Diversity was the key to Chaos A.D., revealed Max Cavalera. "Biotech is Godzilla" was "pure hardcore", according to the elder Cavalera. Archived at "Nomad", with its characteristically slow riffs, was described by lead guitarist Andreas Kisser as the answer to Metallica's "Sad But True".Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 128. The album also featured Sepultura's first all-acoustic incursion, "Kaiowas". "It's like a mixture of Led Zeppelin, Sonic Youth and Olodum", said Max of that particular song.Lemos 1993, page 43.
The lyrics of "Refuse/Resist" mention "tanks on the streets, confronting police, bleeding the plebs." The song's chorus ("Refuse! Resist!") was similar to a protest march slogan,Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 126. and the cover of this song's single depicted a South Korean student rushing at Seoul's riot police contingent while holding a petrol bomb. The next song, "Territory", dealt with the conflict between the Palestinian and Israeli peoples. "Slave New World" - with its lyrics co-written by Biohazard bassist Evan Seinfeld - was a protest against censorship.
Massacres were a major part of Chaos A.D.s overall theme. "Amen" tackled with the massacre of David Koresh's followers in Waco, Texas. "Manifest" had a faux-radio report of the Carandiru massacre, and "Kaiowas" was made in honor of a Brazilian Indian tribe that committed collective suicide in protest against the government that wanted to drive them off the land of their ancestors. "Nomad", written by Andreas, talked about people expelled from their homelands.
On Chaos A.D., Sepultura honored one of their biggest idols, Jello Biafra. Max had called Biafra asking him to contribute to the album with a song about the growing neo-Nazi movement. "I asked for something like 'Nazi Punks Fuck Off - Part 2'", remembers Max, referring to the anti-Nazi song "Nazi Punks Fuck Off" by the Dead Kennedys. But Biafra wasn't interested in recycling old ideas and he suggested a song called "Biotech Is Godzilla", that he had written during his visit to Eco '92, a world conference about ecology organized in Rio de Janeiro. "Jello spent ten minutes explaining me his crazy theories", said Max to Anamaria G. of Bizz magazine, "he said that George Bush had sent a group of scientists to Brazil to test germs and bacteria on human beings and use them as guinea pigs. The lyrics claim that biotechnology created AIDS. But they don't say that technology is bad, just that it's in the wrong hands."Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 130.
Touring and promotion
By the time Chaos A.D. arrived, Sepultura were the biggest act of Roadrunner's roster.Mudrian 2004, page 189. Aware of the band's increasing popularity, the label spent nearly $1 million on a "marketing blitz" which quickly guaranteed them silver and gold records in Belgium, France and the UK.Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 132. The group also signed an exclusive distribution deal with a major label, Epic Records, home of Pearl Jam and Rage Against the Machine.Mudrian 2004, page 189. This deal eventually went sour: Epic paid little attention to Sepultura, preferring to invest in Fight and Prong,Mudrian 2004, page 189. groups that were, in the long run, less successful than the Brazilians.
The Chaos A.D. tour kickstarted on October 23, 1993 with British doomsters Paradise Lost as the opening act. The tour went well, except for an incident where Berlin's police received a false tip claiming that Sepultura's tour bus was loaded with a major cocaine shipment. Enraged by the unjust search and seizure procedure, Max re-wrote "Antichrist", from their 1985 Bestial Devastation EP, as "Anti-Cop",Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 133. and then the band proceeded in playing the song live throughout the tour (a recorded version is available on the combined re-release of Bestial Devastation/Morbid Visions and The Roots of Sepultura albums).
While touring Europe, rumors floated around that Sepultura would be part of the latest edition of Brazil's Hollywood Rock music festival, taking place in January 1994. The event would happen simultaneously on São Paulo and in Rio de Janeiro.
*Entertainment Weekly (11/26/93, p. 67) - "Sepultura will separate casual headbangers from rabid addicts fast....even nonmetalheads will be impressed by the variety in : they're not averse to slowing things down." - Rating: B+
*Q magazine (12/93, p. 122) - " should mark a milestone in career...they've succeeded in capturing their live aggression with a resonance and immediacy that evaded earlier efforts."
*Melody Maker (10/23/93, p. 33) - " genuine expression of outrage...Sepultura are not in the business of splatter soundtracks or documentary gore-fests—they write protest songs."
*NME (10/23/93, p. 37) - "Chaos AD may be the term for the boiling point rage against state corruption and persecution, but leave the sickening negativity and chronic egoism to others."
*Rolling Stone Brasil considered Chaos A.D. the 46th best Brazilian music album.
Album - Billboard (North America)
Album - Music recording sales certifications
*Max Cavalera - Vocals, rhythm guitar, 4-string guitar, acoustic guitar, percussion
*Igor Cavalera - drums, percussion
*Andreas Kisser - lead guitar, 12-strings viola, acoustic guitar
*Paulo Jr. - bass, percussion
*Silvio Bibika - Studio roadie
*Simon Dawson - Assistant engineer
*Alex Newport - Guitar sound/feedback advisor
*Dave Somers - Assistant engineer
*Andy Wallace - Producer
*Michael Whelan - cover artwork ('Cacophony')
*Recorded at Rockfield Studios, South Wales, UK (though the liner notes incorrectly state "South Wales, England")
*"Kaiowas" recorded at Chepstow Castle, Wales, UK
*Mixed at The Wool Hall Recording Studios, Bath, England
* Barcinski, André & Gomes, Silvio (1999). Sepultura: Toda a História. São Paulo: Ed. 34. ISBN 85-7326156-0
* Lemos, Anamaria (1993). Caos Desencanado. Bizz, 98, 40-45.
* Mudrian, Albert (2004). Choosing Death: the Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Los Angeles, CA: Feral House.
* Sepultura (1993). Chaos A.D. . New York, NY: Roadrunner Records.
Category:Roadrunner Records albums
Category:Albums produced by Andy Wallace
ka:Chaos A.D. (ალბომი)
sv:Chaos A.D.This text has been derived from Chaos A.D. on Wikipedia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License 3.0
Sepultura (Portuguese for "grave"Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 17.) is a Brazilian heavy metal band from Belo Horizonte, formed in 1984.Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 16. The band was a major force in the death metal, thrash metal and ultimately groove metal realms during the late 1980s and early 1990s, with their later experiments melding nu metal,Dimery 2006 pg 782, "Drawing on Brazilian Latin and tribal music, nu-metal, and Sepultura's own thrash/death style, the results were unique," hardcore punk, industrial music and extreme metal. Archived at Barcinski & Gomes 1999, pages 89 & 90.
Sepultura have released eleven studio albums so far, the latest being A-Lex (2009). Their most successful records are Arise (1991), Chaos A.D. (1993), and Roots (1996).Colmatti 1997, page 22. Sepultura has sold over 3 million units in the USA and almost 20 milion worldwide, gaining multiple gold and platinum records across the globe, including in countries as diverse as France, Australia, Indonesia,Barcinski & Gomes 1999, pages 109 & 143. United States, Cyprus and their native Brazil.Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 143.
Sepultura was formed in 1984 in Belo Horizonte, the capital city of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The band was founded by teen brothers Max and Igor Cavalera, the impoverished sons of Vânia, a model, and Graciliano, a well-to-do Italian diplomat whose fatal heart attack left his family in financial ruin.Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 14. Graciliano's death deeply affected his sons, inspiring them to form a band after Max heard the album Black Sabbath Vol. 4 the very same day. They chose the band name Sepultura, the Portuguese word for "grave," when Max translated the lyrics of the Motörhead song "Dancing on Your Grave".
The brothers' early influences included Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple, and the popular heavy metal and hard rock artists of the early 1980s, such as Van Halen, Iron Maiden, Motörhead, AC/DC, Judas Priest and Ozzy Osbourne. They would travel to a record shop in São Paulo that mixed tapes of the latest records by American bands. Their listening habits changed dramatically after being introduced to Venom. As Igor Cavalera put it:
The Cavalera brothers started listening to bands such as Kreator, Sodom, Metallica, Exodus and Exciter.Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 26. By 1984, they had dropped out of school.
After several early membership changes, Sepultura established a stable lineup of Max on guitar, Igor on drums, vocalist Wagner Lamounier, and bassist Paulo Jr..Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 21. Lamounier departed in March 1985 after disagreements with the band, and moved on to become the leader of the pioneering Brazilian black metal band Sarcófago. After his departure, Max took over the vocal duties. Jairo Guedes was invited to join the band as lead guitarist.Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 28.
Bestial Devastation and Morbid Visions (1984–1986)
After about a year of performing, Sepultura signed to Cogumelo Records in 1985. Later that year, they released Bestial Devastation, a shared EP with fellow Brazilian band Overdose. It was self-produced and recorded in just two days. The band recorded their first debut full-length album, Morbid Visions, in August 1986. It contained their first hit, "Troops of Doom," which gained some media attention. The band then decided to relocate to the larger city of São Paulo. It was initially released in the United States on New Renaissance Records, a record label owned by singer Ann Boleyn.
Schizophrenia, Beneath the Remains and Arise (1987–1992)
In early 1987, Jairo Guedes quit the band after losing interest in playing death metal. Jairo was replaced by São Paulo-based guitarist Andreas Kisser,Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 49. and they released their second studio album, Schizophrenia, in 1987. The album reflected a stylistic change towards a more thrash metal-oriented sound, while still keeping the death metal elements of Morbid Visions. Schizophrenia was an improvement in production and performance, and became a minor critical sensation across Europe and America as a much sought-after import. The band sent tapes to America that made radio playlists at a time when they were struggling to book gigs because club owners were afraid to book them due to their style. The band gained attention from Roadrunner Records who signed them and released Schizophrenia internationally before seeing the band perform in person.
The band's third studio album, Beneath the Remains, was released in 1989. The album was recorded in a rustic studio in Rio de Janeiro while the band communicated through translators with the American producer Scott Burns. It was an immediate success and became known in thrash metal circles as a classic on the order of Slayer's Reign in Blood. It is hailed by Terrorizer magazine as one of the all-time top 20 thrash metal albums,Terrorizer #109 (2003), page 35 (author unknown) as well as a gaining a place in their all-time top 40 death metal records.Hinchliffe 2006, page 54 Allmusic gave the album 4.5 stars out of 5 and said, "The complete absence of filler here makes this one of the most essential death/thrash metal albums of all time." A long European and American tour furthered the band's reputation, despite the fact that they were still very limited English speakers. Their first US show was held on October 31, 1989 at the Ritz in New York City, opening for Danish heavy metal band King Diamond. The band filmed its first video for the single "Inner Self".
In January 1989 Sepultura played for more than 100,000 people at the Rock in Rio II festival. The band relocated from their native Brazil to Phoenix, Arizona in 1990, obtained new management, and recorded the album Arise at Morrisound Studios in Tampa, Florida. By the time the album was released in 1991, the band become one of the most critically praised thrash/death metal bands of the time. The first single "Dead Embryonic Cells" was a success, and the title track gained additional attention when its video was banned by MTV America due to its apocalyptic religious imagery. The album was critically acclaimed and their first to chart on the Billboard 200, reaching #119.
Max Cavalera married the band's manager, Gloria Bujnowski, during this period. In 1992, Sepultura was part of two major tours: Helmet/Ministry and Alice in Chains/Ozzy Osbourne. Reflecting on their past in Brazil at the time, Max Cavalera said "Traveling on trains. Getting beat up by cops. Sleeping behind the stage. It's part of growing up. It's part of the nature of this stuff. If you don't have that kind of background, you can't be a band like us."
Chaos A.D. and Roots (1993–1996)
Sepultura's fifth album, Chaos A.D., was released in 1993. It saw a departure from their death/thrash metal style,Barcinski & Gomes 1999, page 131. adding elements of industrial and hardcore punk. Archived at In its review of the album, Allmusic gave it 4.5 stars out of 5 and wrote that, "Chaos A.D. ranks as one of the greatest heavy metal albums of all time." In 1994, Max and Igor, aided by Alex Newport of Fudge Tunnel, released an even more industrial-oriented album, Point Blank, under the group name Nailbomb. The group performed only one full live gig, and the performance was released as Proud to Commit Commercial Suicide. The band also played selected tracks live on Sepultura's 1994 tour with Fudge Tunnel as guests.
Sepultura's departure from death and thrash metal continued with their sixth album, Roots, which was released in 1996. On this album the band experimented with elements of the music of Brazil's indigenous peoples, and adopted a slower, down-tuned sound. The album was hailed as a modern day heavy metal classic. Allmusic gave it 4.5 stars out of 5 and said, "Roots consolidates Sepultura's position as perhaps the most distinctive, original heavy metal band of the 1990s."
Departure of Max Cavalera (1996–1997)
In 1996, Sepultura played on the Castle Donington Monsters of Rock main stage alongside Ozzy Osbourne, Paradise Lost, Type O Negative, Biohazard and Fear Factory. The band was suddenly a three-piece with Andreas Kisser taking over on lead vocals, after Max Cavalera left the concert site earlier in the day upon learning of the murder of his stepson Dana Wells. Meanwhile, just after the release of Roots the band decided to fire their manager Gloria Bujnowski, who was Max's wife and Dana's mother. These events resulted in Max's departure from the band. For many years, the true reasons behind his departure remained unknown.Rock Sound Issue 15576:pg 56. Sepultura: what really happened in London? Max ultimately left the band after a performance at Brixton Academy in England on December 16, 1996, and later formed a new band, Soulfly. The remaining members of Sepultura announced that they would continue with a new lead vocalist. In 1996, Sepultura performed "War (Guerra)" for the AIDS benefit album Silencio=Muerte: Red Hot + Latin produced by the Red Hot Organization.
In an interview with Faceculture in 2010, Max Cavelera claimed that he left Sepultura because Andreas Kisser's wife attempted to arrange Dana Wells's funeral before Max and his wife Gloria Bujnowski could return home from England. When the band later decided to fire Bujnowski as manager, Max offered to allow Kisser and Paolo Jr. to be managed by someone else, while he and Igor would retain Bujnowski as their manager, but Kisser rejected the plan. Max claimed in the interview that he regrets these events but a reunion is unlikely due to lingering disputes between himself and Kisser.
Against, Nation and Roorback (1998–2005)
Sepultura on stage.jpgthumbright250pxSepultura on stage
Sepultura chose American singer Derrick Green from Cleveland, Ohio as their new front man. The first album with the new lineup was Against, which was released in 1998. The album was critically and commercially less successful than previous albums, and also sold considerably fewer copies than the debut album by Max Cavalera's new band Soulfly. Allmusic gave the album 3 stars out of 5, stating that "...there are enough flashes of the old Sepultura brilliance to suggest that great things are still to come."
The band's eighth album, Nation, released in 2001, sold poorly. It would be their last studio album with Roadrunner Records. Allmusic gave the album 3 stars out of 5 and said, "As Green scrapes the lining of his vocal chords through the brash, impassioned tracks, he's singing about more than just 'one nation, Sepulnation'; he's suggesting something bigger, something worth shouting about and fighting for." In an interview, Derrick Green said about the album, "Every song will be related to the idea of building this nation. We will have our own flags, our own anthem." A recording of Max Cavalera's last live show with Sepultura, titled Under A Pale Grey Sky, was released in 2002 by Roadrunner Records, against the wishes of the band.
After recording Revolusongs, an EP of covers in 2002, the band released their ninth studio album, Roorback, in 2003. Despite receiving greater critical acclaim than its predecessors, sales remained low. It was their first album with SPV Records. Allmusic gave the album 4 stars out of 5 and said, "...if there are still any lingering doubts about the Green/Sepultura match, 2003's excellent Roorback should put them to rest for good. Green is passionate and focused throughout the album — he has no problem going that extra mile — and the writing is consistently strong." In 2005, the band played in Dubai for the annual Dubai Desert Rock Festival. In November of that year, a live double DVD/double CD package, Live in São Paulo, was released. This was the first live album from the band, but it is not considered "official" because it was not endorsed by the band.
Dante XXI and A-Lex (2006–2010)
Metalmania 2007 - Sepultura 01.jpgthumbright250pxSepultura in Poland.
Sepultura's tenth album, Dante XXI, was released on March 14, 2006. It is a concept album based on Dante's The Divine Comedy. Music videos were recorded for the songs "Convicted in Life" and "Ostia". Allmusic gave the album 3.5 stars out of 5 and said that, "Overall, Dante XXI is easily one of Sepultura's strongest releases to feature Green on vocals."
In a 2007 interview with Revolver Magazine, Max Cavalera stated that he and Igor would reunite with the original Sepultura lineup. There were also rumors that the reunited line up would play on the main stage at Ozzfest 2007. However, this was denied by Kisser and the proposed reunion did not occur. Instead, Igor Cavalera left the band after the release of Dante XXI. He was replaced by Brazilian drummer Jean Dolabella.
Sepultura released the album A-Lex on 26 January 2009. This was the first Sepultura album to include neither of the Cavalera brothers, with bassist Paolo Jr. as the sole remaining member from the band's debut album. A-Lex is a concept album based on the book A Clockwork Orange. The album was recorded at Trama Studios in São Paulo, Brazil, with producer Stanley Soares. Allmusic gave the album 4 stars out of 5 and said, "Personnel changes can have a very negative effect on a band, but Sepultura have maintained their vitality all these years — and that vitality is alive and well on the superb A-Lex."
The band was one of the featured musical guests at the Latin Grammy Awards of 2008 on November 13. They performed a cover of "The Girl from Ipanema", and "We've Lost You" from the album A-Lex. The 9th annual Latin Grammy Awards ceremony was held at the Toyota Center in Houston, Texas and aired on Univision. Sepultura supported Metallica on January 30 and January 31, 2010 at Morumbi Stadium in São Paulo, Brazil. The two concerts were attended by 100,000 people.http The band is planning to film a concert DVD in 2010. Sepultura played at Kucukciftlik Park, Istanbul, on April 27, 2010. On August 8, 2010 visited the UK to play at the Hevy Music Festival near Folkestone.
Kairos and the future (2010–present)
On July 6, 2010, it was announced that Sepultura were signed with Nuclear Blast Records, and would release their first album for the label in 2011. By the end of 2010, the band had begun writing new material and entered the studio to begin recording their twelfth album with producer Roy Z (Judas Priest, Halford, Iron Maiden's Bruce Dickinson, Helloween).http On March 1, 2011, it was announced that Sepultura had completed recording their new album, entitled Kairos, which was tentatively due in late spring/early summer 2011. The album will also include cover versions of Ministry's "Just One Fix" and The Prodigy's "Firestarter", both of which are expected to be made available as bonus tracks on various special-edition releases. The band have confirmed that there will be no reunion of the classic lineup.
MTV has called Sepultura the most successful Brazilian heavy metal band in history and "perhaps the most important heavy metal band of the '90s". In 1993, one reporter wrote that the band played "machine-gun-tempo mayhem" but that the members "love to attack organized religion and repressive government".
Sepultura's music has been described as death metal,
black metal,Schwarz, Paul (February 2005). "Black Metal Foundations Top 20: Sepultura, Morbid Visions. Terrorizer #128, p.42.
progressive metal and speed metal. The group have been credited for setting the blueprints for metalcore and nu metal.
* Derrick Green – lead vocals, occasional rhythm guitar (1997–present)
* Andreas Kisser – lead guitar, backing vocals (1987–present)
* Paulo Jr. – bass (1984–present)
* Jean Dolabella – drums, percussion (2006–present)
* Jairo Guedes – lead guitar (1984–1987)
* Max Cavalera – lead vocals, rhythm guitar (1985–1997), lead guitar (1984–1985)
* Igor Cavalera – drums, percussion (1984–2006)
* Wagner Lamounier – vocals (1984–1985)
* Roy Mayorga – drums, percussion (2006)
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*Morbid Visions (1986)
*Beneath the Remains (1989)
*Chaos A.D. (1993)
*Dante XXI (2006)
*Anonymous (May 2003). Beneath the Remains. In: A Megaton Hit Parade: The All-Time Thrash Top 20. Terrorizer #109, page 35.
*Barcinski, André & Gomes, Silvio (1999). Sepultura: Toda a História. São Paulo: Ed. 34. ISBN 85-7326-156-0
*Colmatti, Andréa (1997). Sepultura: Igor Cavalera. Modern Drummer Brasil, 6, 18-26, 28-30.
*Hinchliffe, James (December 2006). Beneath the Remains. In: Death MetalThis text has been derived from Sepultura on Wikipedia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License 3.0